Rol de las células estrelladas hepáticas en la respuesta inflamatoria-fibrótica de la esquistosomiasis murina | Role of hepatic stellate cells in the inflammatory-fibrotic response murine schistosomiasis

Eva Velásquez Bolívar, Ángel Castillo Corujo, Emilia Barrios, Miguel Cosenza, Génesis Ochoa

Resumen


Las Células Estrelladas Hepáticas (HSCs) son una de las principales fuentes de colágeno en el hígado y juegan un papel crucial en la fibrogénesis inducida por los esquistosomas. Las HSCs en reposo funcionan principalmente almacenando la vitamina A, pero en respuesta a la lesión del tejido hepático, se activan y sufren transdiferenciación a miofibroblastos, que se caracterizan por la producción de la matriz extracelular (ECM), componentes ricos en colágenos fibrilares. En la esquistosomiasis, se desarrolla una respuesta inflamatoria granulomatosa fibrogénica dirigida principalmente contra los huevos de esquistosoma, resultando en la patología hepática asociada con la enfermedad. En el proceso, el rol de las HSCs ha sido estudiado de manera no concluyente, tanto en la esquistosomiasis como en otras parasitosis. En la infección por Schistosoma mansoni, se conoce que ellas están presentes en su estado activado (miofibroblastos), en el borde fibrótico del granuloma hepático. Por contraste, en otras patologías, se ha demostrado que la expresión y activación de estas células conduce a la progresión de la fibrogénesis, pudiendo provocar cáncer hepático. Así mismo, su baja expresión y activación está asociado a la disminución de la fibrogénesis y la posible limitación de la patología. La fibrogénesis y la inmunopatogénesis causada por S. mansoni, estudiada en modelos murinos, puede tener amplias implicaciones para la salud humana; en última instancia, se traduce en una estrategia eficaz de intervención de la esquistosomiasis, así como también para otras enfermedades granulofibróticas hepáticas que puedan inducir cáncer en este tejido. Por tal motivo, la presente revisión describe el rol de las células estrelladas hepáticas en la respuesta inflamatoria-fibrótica de la esquistosomiasis murina.

 

Palabras clave: Schistosoma mansoni, cáncer, ratón.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are a major source of collagen in the liver and play a crucial role in fibrogenesis induced by schistosomes. Resting HSCs function primarily storing vitamin A, but in response to injury of the liver tissue, are activated and undergo transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts, which are characterized by the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components rich in fibrillar collagens. In schistosomiasis, a fibrogenic granulomatous inflammatory response develops, directed mainly against schistosome eggs, resulting in liver pathology associated with the disease. In the process, the role of HSCs has not been studied conclusively, not only in schistosomiasis but also in other parasitoses. In Schistosoma mansoni infection it is known that they are present in the activated state (myofibroblasts), in the fibrotic border of liver granuloma. In contrast to other diseases, it has been demonstrated that expression and activation of these cells leads to the progression of the fibrogenesis, which may lead to liver cancer. Likewise, the low expression and activation is associated with decreased fibrogenesis and the possible limitation of the pathology. Fibrogenesis and immunopathogenesis caused by S. mansoni, studied in murine models, may have broad implications for human health, and ultimately it translates into an effective intervention strategy for schistosomiasis, as well as for other liver granulofibrotic diseases which can induce cancer in this tissue. Therefore, the following review describes the role of hepatic stellate cells in the inflammatory-fibrotic response of murine schistosomiasis.

 

Key words: Schistosoma mansoni, cancer, mouse.


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